DIABETES MELLITUS

What is Diabetes Mellitus & where is the defect ? As we all know Diabetes is a syndrome due to either insufficient insulin secreted to the blood by the ß cells of the pancreas , inefficient insulin molecule or body cells specially adipose & muscle cells are not responding to insulin function to permit entrance of glucose through their cell membrane.Entry of glucose to the cells is normally facilitated by Glucose transport proteins ( GLUTS ) whigh may not function normally in diabetics. Other hormones opposing the activity of insulin may play a role.Incidence of Diabetes increases every year globally to affect in the last year about 150 million people which calls for research & extensive studies to avoid & treat this malignant metabolic ailment. Improper insulin function will lead to many metabolic disorders starting with carbohydrates,then lipids & finally proteins. Other hormones which oppose insulin functions on metabolism including adrenaline,glucagon,hormones of the adrenal cortex,growth hormone then the thyroid hormone have an appreciable role in controlling blood glucose level specially when fasting by providing or replacing glucose to provide cellular energy.

 

Normally upon fasting Blood glucose & insulin levels are low normal & glucose enters the cells to provide energy. Upon prolonged fasting insulin is not available& glucose can not pass to muscle & adipose cells (however entry of glucose to brain & liver cells is free always ) . In prolonged fasting  the hormones Glucagon & adrenaline can supply some glucose from liver glycogen to be used by tissues.At this stage growth hormone uses fatty acids to supply energy,then hormones of adrenal cortex use proteins to supply glucose . these events occur when insulin level is abnormally low or is not functioning as in Diabetes Mellitus & this is why patients with chronic uncontrolled Diabetes  will suffer from tissue loss , weight & muscle wasting. Normally after a meal ,carbohydrates are absorbed to the blood in the form of glucose. Increased level of blood glucose will stimulate insulin secretion which will stimulate entry of glucose to cells ,50 % of glucose will be oxidized for energy supply , 5 % will be stored in the liver & muscle ,about 30-40 % will be stored as fat in the adipose tissue.Some glucose is used to build up proteins specially in muscle cells .So,insulin is anabolic & stores glucose as fat & some protein . Opposing to this function in fasting is the catabolic hormone Glucagon which mobilize the above molecules. In general there are 2 types of diabetes . In Type I ( the juvenile diabetes ) which is Inslin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus ( IDDM ) ,insulin deficiency is caused by autoimmune destruction of the ß cells in the pancreatic islands. It is usually detected in children & adolescence & is usually severe . Type 2 ,also known as Maturity Onset Diabetes has a milder course . It usually appears at ages above 20 years . Pregnant women are more liable to diabetes ( Gestational Diabetes ) which may disappear after pregnancy.

 

Patients with uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus suffer from : High blood glucose level causing increased osmotic pressure.Leading to osmotic diuresis(increased micturition ) and loss of body fluids. Loss of glucose in the urine. Glucose will appear in urine when blood glucose concentration is above about 160 mg./ 100 ml. ( 9 mmol / Litre ) which is the renal threshold for glucose. Energy calories are lost as each gm of glucose supplies 4.1 calorie. Increased blood concentration Feeling of thirstiness & having a lot of fluids. Diabetes affects almost every cell in the body No enough glucose to the cells ,bad tissues function ,lowered immunity & susceptibility to infections.the most common are retinitis,kidney disorder & tissue damage,damage of the nervous system. In uncontrolled diabetics the body will use fat as a source of energy ,blood level of fat & cholesterol will increase to be deposited in the intima of arteries,atherosclerosis,hypertension followed in severe cases by stroke,myocardial infarction& damage of peripheral blood vessels. In cases of mild or prediabetes( prediabetics are normal subjects which may have transient diabetes under stress or sometimes in viral infections ) ,you may not have any of the above abnormalities ,thus we always suggest that you need to do a fasting blood sugar test & Hb1c which reflects blood glucose levels in approximately the last 4-6 weeks.( normally blood HbA1c level does not exceed 5 % of the total hemoglobin ) Normally fasting blood glucose level is no more than about 90 mg./dl ( 5 mmol/litre). If result is controversial ,you need to do a postprandial test ,that is measure fasting blood glucose,drink 50 g. of glucose in a tumblerful of water & test your blood glucose after 2 hours . The difference between the two values should not exceed 30 mg./dl ( about 2 mmol/ Litre ) . Diabetes Mellitus, if untreated properly, is a dangerous disease but if you control your blood glucose level you can have a normal healthy living . This is why we suggest you rely on good therapy . Have our Bitter Melon with honey . It will control your blood glucose level efficiently. Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most common & dangerous ailment . We suggest the following points to be followed: -Your diet should supply no more than 2000 calories per day. -Don’t have heavy meals . Have your daily diet divided into 5 meals. -You may have any diet you wish but in small quantities. -Your daily food intake should contain about 50 % carbohydrates, 35 % proteins & 15 % fat. -Have a lot of vegetables & fruits of low carbohydrate content. How to use: If the blood sugar scale of the patient is between 90-100 mg, use one capsule of Avoka in the morning 1 hour before breakfast , and a second capsule in the evening before going to sleep. If the blood sugar scale of the patient does not exceed 160 mg during the day and with meals, use two capsules of Avoca in the morning 1 hour before breakfast , and in the evening 2 capsules before going to sleep . If the blood sugar scale of the patient exceeds 160 mg, the patient should not stop therapeutic drugs that have been prescribed by a doctor. The patient should take 2 capsules in the morning with an envelope of bitter melon 1 hour before breakfast, and after dinner the patient should take 2 capsules within the hour with an sachet of bitter melon. The patient should also drink liters of hot water during the day.

 

 

THE RESEARCHER ISMAIL RADI
الباحث إسماعيل راضي-